HTF SYSTEM IN SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS

A solar thermal power plant consists basically  in four separate and mutually-coupled systems: radiation capture system, thermal oil system (HTF), energy storage system, and the power block. The thermal  oil (HTF) transfers the energy collected by the sensors cylinder parabolic to the power block , through two trains of heat  exchangers . The steam produced in these heat exchangers is used in steam turbine to generate mechanical energy of rotation, which will be transformed into electricity in the generator.


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Thermal oil system or HTF (heat thermal fluid) is thus the circulatory system that links the captured heat and the electric energy produced. For the operation of the system and by the characteristics of the thermal oil a series of auxiliary systems are necessary: pumping system, reset system, filter, antifreeze, etc. 

The book analyzes in depth this key system of these generation plants with a language accessible without losing technical depth.


 INDEX

1. CSP PLANTS                                               

  • CSP PLANTS                                                                 
  • HEAT TRANSFER FLUID 
  • SOLAR FIELD
  • STEAM GENERATION TRAIN
  • STEAM TURBINE
  • GENERATOR
  • STEAM CONDENSATION
  • HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM
  • INITIAL COST OF A CSP PLANT

2. HTF SYSTEM OVERVIEW 

  • HEAT TRANSFER FLUID (HTF) 
    • Justification for the use of HTF instead of water
    • HTF Main properties 
  • OVERALL SCHEME HTF SYSTEM
  • PUMPING SYSTEM
  • COLD AND HOT COLLECTOR PIPE
  • EXPANSION TANKS
  • NITROGEN OF INERTING SYSTEM
  • AUXILIAR BOLIER 
  • DEGRADATION PRODUCTS REMOVAL SYSTEM
  • POWER BLOCK GENERAL DIAGRAM

3. SYNTHETIC HEAT TRANSFER ORGANIC FLUID (HTF)

  • HEAT CARRYNG FLUIDS IN INDUSTRY
  • Water
  • Inorganic molten salts mixtures
  • Mercury
  • Alkylbenzenes
  • Liquid sodium
  • Synthetic products
  • HTF MAIN FEATURES
  • Eutectic mixture and freezing point
  • Temperature maximum of use
  • Viscosity
  • Density
  • Specific heat
  • Ignition temperature
  • Auto-ignition temperature
  • Security features
  • Other features
  • Features table
  • HTF degradation

4. SOLAR FIELD AND HTF SYSTEM

  • DESCRIPTION OF THE SOLAR FIELD IN A CSP PLANT
  • HTF COLLECTOR PIPE  IN THE SOLAR FIELD 
  • PIPING LAGGING IN THE SOLAR FIELD 
  • PIPES CONFIGURATION IN THE SOLAR FIELD
  • VALVES IN THE SOLAR FIELD 
  • HYDRAULIC BALANCED OF THE FIELD SOLAR
  • THE ABSORBER TUBE
  • The central metal tube
  • Glass cover
  • Glass metal welding 
  • Dilator
  • Welding between pipe

5. PUMPING SYSTEM 

  • PUMPING SYSTEM FUNCTION
  • PUMPS BELONGING TO THE PUMPING SYSTEM  
  • OVERVIEW OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS 
  • Centrifugal pumps
  • Centrifugal pump parts
  • PUMPS TYPES  
  • PUMPS TYPES ACCORDING TO API 610 
  • OH pumps
  • BB pumps
  • VS pumps
  • CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS
  • Nominal flow 
  • Pressures
  • NPSH required
  • Standardization
  • Pump type
  • Number of stages
  • Engine type
  • Supply voltage
  • Regulation type
  • Closure type 
  • Electric power and thermal power
  • Hydraulic power
  • Manometric head in discharge or discharge pressure
  • Performance or efficiency
  • Characteristic curve
  • SEALING SYSTEM: SEALS
  • Sealing devices 
  • Mechanical seals
  • Mechanical seal components
  • Cartridge seals
  • CARTRIDGE MECHANICAL SEALS TYPES ACCORDING TO API 682
  • According to its suitability for the standard API 610
  • Depending on the number of seals includes (arrangement)
  • According to the arrangement of seals which includes
  • SEAL COOLING SYSTEM
  • Cooler and lubricator fluid (Flush) 
  • Cleaning fluid (Quench) 
  • Venting 
  • Exchanger
  • Deposits 
  • Cyclone separator 
  • LUBRICATION AND COOLING PLANS API 682 
  • API Plan 1 
  • API Plan 11 
  • API Plan 2 
  • API Plan 21 
  • API Plan 22 
  • API Plan 23 
  • API Plan 51 
  • API Plan 52 
  • API Plan 53A 
  • API Plan 53B 
  • API Plan 54 
  • MECHANICAL SEAL SELECTION 
  • Pump characteristics
  • Use conditions  
  • Fluid characteristics 
  • The selection of seal materials
  • MAIN IMPULSION PUMPS OF THE HTF  
  • Main pumps function
  • Pump type selection 
  • Seal type selection 
  • The selection of plan of the seal cooling
  • Common configurations
  • Engine
  • Flow control
  • RECIRCULATION PUMPS 
  • BOILER PUMPS
  • EXPANSION TANKS PUMPS 
  • DISCHARGE PUMPS 
  • PURIFICATION SYSTEM PUMPS 

6. EXPANSION TANKS 

  • THE NEED FOR EXPANSION TANKS
  • CALCULATION OF THE VOLUME OF EXPANSION TANKS
  • COMMON CONFIGURATIONS 
  • RETANING WALL  
  • TANKS TRACING 
  • TANKS PRESSURIZATION AND INERTING SYSTEM

7. STEAM TRAIN GENERATOR EXCHANGERS 

  • RANKINE CYCLE
  • EQUIPMENTS THAT FORM PART OF THE STEAM GENERATION TRAIN 
  • STEAM TRAIN GENERATOR CONFIGURATION
  • FLUID DISTRIBUTION 
  • OVERVIEW OF HEAT EXCHANGER CASING-TUBES
  • Casing
  • Tubes
  • Tubular plates
  • Deflection plates 
  • ECONOMIZER
  • EVAPORATOR
  • SUPERHEATER 
  • REHEATER
  • OVERVIEW OF THE STEAM GENERATION TRAIN 

8. HTF PURIFICATION SYSTEM

  • HTF DEGRADATION
  • PURIFICATION SYSTEM FUNCTION
  • FILTERING
  • Simple filters
  • Double filters
  • Self cleaning filters
  • Kidney filters
  • THE PURIFICATION BY DISTILLATION
  • First phase: evaporation flash 
  • Second phase: controlled condensation
  • Equipments that make up the purification system
  • THE SYSTEM OF TREATMENT MORE EFFECTIVE

9. NATURAL GAS AUXILIARY BOILER

  • JUSTIFICATION OF THE NEED 
  • AVAILABLE TO THE AUXILIARY BOILER
  • SELF HEALING POWER WITH THE AUXILIARY BOILER
  • POWER

10. EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES IN CSP PLANTS

  • WHAT IS AN EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERE?
  • REGULATIONS GOVERNING EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES 
  • EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES TYPES
  • OBLIGATIONS ARISING FROM THE PRESENCE OF ATEX ZONES
  • FUELS IN SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS
  • ATEX ZONES IN SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS
  • Rotary joints in the solar field
  • Expansion tanks
  • Pumping area 
  • Purification area (Ullage) 
  • Heat exchangers area of steam generation train 
  • Auxiliar boiler 
  • ERM or GNL satellite plant 
  • Batteries area 

11. INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL OF SYSTEM HTF

  • FLOW MEASUREMENT
    • Fluid flow measurement
    • The function of flow meters
    • Operating general principle of flow meter
    • Factors that influence on the measurement of flow rate 
    • Flow meters types
    • Flow meters used in solar thermal power plants
    • The difficulty in the flow rate of HTF
  • TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
  • Visual indicators
  • RTDS
  • Measurement points of the temperature in the circuit 
  • PRESSURE MEASUREMENT 
  • Local instruments: bourdon tube 
  • Electromechanical pressure transmitters
  • Pressure measurement in the HTF system
  • LEVEL MEASUREMENT 
  • Float meters
  • Differential pressure level transmitters
  • Equipments with level transmitters 
  • HTF SYSTEM CONTROL
  • HTF control in the solar field
  • Level control in expansion tanks 
  • Flow control of HTF in auxiliary boiler 
  • Flow control of the HTF in the steam generation train 
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